Boletín Año 5 Número 13 | Movimientos migratorios

En la presente edición mensual del Boletín de la Asociación Civil Internacia, el tema a discutir son las Migraciones. Dentro del boletín se presentan artículos escritos por ex-miembros y colaboradores externos de la Asociación, así como una entrevista a un experto en temas de refugiados.

1.TURQUÍA, ¿TERCER PAÍS SEGURO PARA ACOGER A REFUGIADOS?: UN BALANCE A UN AÑO DEL ACUERDO MIGRATORIO CON LA UNIÓN EUROPEA

Por Alessandra Enrico Headrington

Respecto del proceso de adhesión de Turquía a la UE, en noviembre de 2016, el Parlamento Europeo aprobó una resolución en la que exhortó a los Estados miembros de la UE a que congelen las negociaciones de adhesión de Turquía al bloque hasta que cesen los actos de represión. Cabe destacar, que dicha resolución no reviste efectos jurídicamente vinculantes en la decisión de la incorporación de Turquía a la UE, debido a que esta recae, finalmente, en los gobiernos de los Estados miembros, quienes lo deciden por unanimidad. Sin perjuicio de ello, esta resolución, de corte más político, denuncia de manera contundente, la categorización de «tercer país seguro» acuñada a Turquía, ya que evidencia el estado actual del respeto a las libertades esenciales en Turquía, y el incumplimiento de disposiciones esenciales reconocidas en distintos instrumentos internacionales de derechos humanos de los que es Estado Parte.

2. ANÁLISIS DEL VETO MIGRATORIO ESTADOUNIDENSE EN BASE A LAS ÓRDENES EJECUTIVAS DEL 27 DE ENERO Y 06 DE MARZO DE 2017

Por Rosa Stephanie Paredes Rodríguez

Si bien existe un marco de protección contra la discriminación por raza, religión, nacionalidad, entre otros motivos, aún persisten casos. Un ejemplo de ello es el de Estados Unidos, país cuya política migratoria viene recibiendo críticas al buscar implementar un trato diferenciado para extranjeros de determinados países, justificando su actuar en base a la denominada lucha contra el terrorismo.

3. «ALTERNATIVA PARA ALEMANIA (AFD)»: ¿UNA ALTERNATIVA PARA LOS REFUGIADOS?

Por Nashly Valle Chacaltana

Paralelamente a los inicios de ambas crisis, política y migratoria, se originó un crecimiento ininterrumpido de la intención de voto al Alternativa para Alemania (AfD). En agosto del 2015, con un 3% a nivel nacional, AfD no hizo más que seguir captando una cifra cada vez mayor de simpatizantes. Para noviembre de ese mismo año acumuló un 10,5% de apoyo electoral. Más tarde, con el escándalo de la Noche Vieja del 2015 en Colonia, el éxito de AfD se disparó. Logró situarse como segunda fuerza en Sajonia-Anhalt con el 24,2% de los votos, y como tercera fuerza en Baden-Württemberg (15,1%) y Renania-Palatinado (12,6%). Aquello significó la conquista de AfD en el oeste y la gran derrota de la CDU, que había sido el partido predilecto de Sajonia durante años. Estos eran los signos de las repercusiones que habían generado las políticas de Merkel y la evidencia del creciente descontento por parte de la población.

4.ENTREVISTA A PABLO PAZ

En el 2016 se registró un alza  de la denominada “protección subsidiaria”, el segundo criterio de otorgamiento de asilo en Alemania basado en la convención europea de Derechos Humanos. Esta última protege a toda persona que corre el peligro de ser torturada, condenada a muerte, mutilada, etc. por parte de actores estatales o no estatales en su país de origen, en el contexto de un conflicto armado. A modo de ejemplo, en el 2015 buena parte de los solicitantes de asilo sirios recibieron el estatus de refugiado bajo el criterio de la “Convención de Ginebra”, pues se asumía que todos los sunítas sirios que se opusieran al régimen de al-Asad corrían el peligro de ser masacrados por éste, quien a su vez pertenece a la minoría religiosa alauí.

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