Boletín Año 3 Número 8 | Seguridad Internacional

La seguridad como concepto ha pasado a incluir diferentes sujetos de amenazas así como una gran variedad de éstas. La seguridad hoy en día es un tema de gran importancia en la agenda de política internacional. En este sentido, la seguridad como concepto ha permeado los diferentes estamentos de la sociedad.

Sin embargo, los debates sobre la naturaleza y el significado de la “seguridad”, así como el futuro de los estudios sobre la misma, se ubican en el período de Post Guerra Fría. Dichos debates tienen sus orígenes en: el descontento existente entre algunos académicos frente a los planteamientos realistas y neorrealistas que han caracterizado el tema, una necesidad de responder a los desafíos propios de la seguridad en el periodo de la post Guerra Fría y un continuo deseo de lograr que la disciplina sea relevante en los asuntos contemporáneos. A pesar de ello, después de mucha discusión, los académicos no han logrado un consenso en la aproximación a la construcción de un concepto de seguridad, pues para algunos autores la seguridad debe ser analizada desde el concepto tradicional, mientras que para otros, éste se queda corto en la explicación de la realidad mundial. En el presente boletín podremos contar con los siguientes artículos:

Aproximaciones teóricas a las organizaciones criminales

Aproximaciones teóricas a las organizaciones criminales. Por: Viviana Baraybar

El propósito del siguiente artículo es examinar los cambios en las estructuras y modelos teóricos aplicados a la investigación de las organizaciones criminales, así como presentar una tipología de crimen que refleje parcialmente la evolución en la conceptualización de este fenómeno. El artículo pretende explicar qué se entiende por organizaciones criminales, cómo ha sido la transformación de lo que entendemos por ellas, las características de las actividades que realizan y su naturaleza como organización.

La seguridad internacional frente a la amenaza del Estado Islámico desde el enfoque realista

La seguridad internacional frente a la amenaza del Estado Islámico desde el enfoque realista. Por Jimy Trujillo

La situación de emergencia que desde hace cinco años afronta Siria debido a la guerra civil emprendida por el grupo terrorista Estado Islámico, representa una amenaza grave para la seguridad internacional. Numerosos especialistas en relaciones internacionales han pretendido utilizar el enfoque realista como una herramienta académica para analizar dicha amenaza. Sin embargo, esta perspectiva es recibida con cuestionamientos por parte de otros internacionalistas, lo que llevó al autor del presente artículo el autor a plantearse la siguiente pregunta: ¿El enfoque realista es válido como instrumento de estudio de las recientes amenazas a la seguridad internacional, como el Estado Islámico?

Integrando desde la

Integración desde la defensa y seguridad: Brasil en el Consejo Suramericano de Defensa (CSD). Por Giorgio Baglietto

En este artículo se explora el papel de Brasil como gestor de una mayor integración regional en materia de defensa y seguridad por medio del Consejo Sudamericano de Defensa (CDS). Brasil es un país con reconocida influencia política y económica en la región del sur; no obstante, dentro de los elementos que caracterizan a Brasil como miembro de los BRIC’S, estudios previos no se han enfocado tanto en la materia de la seguridad y defensa. Por ello, el autor de esta artículo ha tomado interés en este aspecto en particular.

Abeipolitics

‘Abepolitics’: ¿un retorno al nacionalismo imperial? Por David Yompian

Recientemente, la Cámara Alta del Parlamento Japonés adoptó algunas decisiones entre las cuales se aprobó la polémica posibilidad de que las Fuerzas Armadas japonesas participen en conflictos bélicos internacionales, a través de la enmienda al artículo 9 de su Constitución. A raíz de la aprobación de dicha enmienda, el autor del artículo se pregunta si es posible hablar de un retorno al nacionalismo que caracterizó al imperialismo japonés.

guardían del mundo

¿Guardián del Mundo?: El Consejo de Seguridad de la ONU y una lectura crítica de su rol en el mantenimiento de la seguridad internacional. Por Maria Grazia Sibille

Desde la creación de las Naciones Unidas, el Consejo de Seguridad ha sido objeto de críticas tanto en cuanto a su composición como en relación a las medidas bajo las cuales funciona y especialmente durante los últimos años, numerosos especialistas, académicos y funcionarios han declarado la ineficacia de este órgano en el establecimiento de la seguridad colectiva, que es su fin primordial. En el presente artículo, la autora emprende un examen crítico del rol del Consejo de Seguridad en el mantenimiento de la seguridad global a través de la revisión de resoluciones controversiales ejecutadas a lo largo de su existencia, del cuestionamiento de las intenciones y acciones de los estados con derecho a veto, y de la contraposición de argumentos realistas y liberales frente al debate.

Por medio de esta nueva edición se pretende  hacer una revisión de la evolución que ha tenido el concepto de seguridad internacional durante los siglos XX y XXI a partir de las teorías de las relaciones internacionales.

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